Swollen Gums

Gum Swelling can also be called as Gingival Swelling. Swollen gums are unusually enlarged, stuffed, or protruding. Gum swelling is quite common and may involve one or many papillae (the triangular-shaped bits of gum between adjacent teeth). Sometimes, the gums swell significantly, obscuring the teeth altogether. It is a quite common cause of toothache. Gum disease refers to inflammation of the soft tissue (gingiva) and unusual loss of bone that surrounds the teeth and holds them in place. Gum disease is caused by toxins secreted by bacteria in "plaque" that accumulate over time along the gum line. Plaque is a mixture of food, saliva, and bacteria. Early symptoms of gum disease include gum bleeding. It can be occurred without any pain. Pain is a symptom of more sophisticated gum disease as the loss of bone around the teeth leads to the creation of gum pockets. Bacteria in these pockets cause gum infection, swelling, pain, and further bone damage. Advanced gum diseases can cause loss of healthy teeth. Gum swelling could also be a way your mouth is telling you that something is wrong with your health. Leukemia or Diabetes can be other reasons for swollen, bleeding gums.

Common Causes of Gum Swelling

Some very common causes for swollen gums are infection by a virus or fungus, gingivitis, poor fitting dentures, sensitivity to toothpaste or mouthwash, side effect of a drug such as Dilantin or Phenobarbital, malnutrition, deficiency of vitamin C and pregnancy (in 1st or 2nd trimester). It is quite common and may involve one area of the gums adjoining a tooth or the entire gums in the mouth. There are many other causes of swollen gums that could be as minor as hypersensitivity to chewing gum, reactions to prescription medications or a popcorn kernel logged into the gums. Gum problems can also be hereditary.


Treatment of early gum disease involves oral sanitation and removal of bacterial plaque. Moderate to advanced gum disease usually requires a systematic cleaning of the teeth and teeth roots called "root planning" and "sub gingival curettage." Root planning is the removal of plaque and tartar (hardened plaque) from exposed teeth roots while sub gingival curettage refers to the elimination of the surface of the swollen layer of gum tissue. Both the procedures are usually performed under local anesthesia and may be accompanied by the use of oral antibiotics to conquer gum infection or blister. Its treatment may include various types of gum surgeries. In an advance gum disease with significant bone demolition and loosening of teeth, teeth splinting or a teeth extraction may become mandatory.

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